Marlborough was the most heavily engaged ship of the class during the battle of Jutland; she fired a total of 162 heavy-calibre shells, out of a total of 292 for the entire class. She was assigned to the 6th Division of the 1st Battle Squadron, towards the rear of the British line. She served as the flagship of Vice Admiral Cecil Burney. During the battle, she was hit by a torpedo amidships; the torpedo tore a hole that was 21 m by 6 m (70 ft by 20 ft). Despite the damage, she was able to keep her position in the line, though her speed was reduced to 17 kn (31 km/h; 20 mph). Marlborough continued to fire her main guns until the list increased to the point that prevented her guns from being effectively employed. The ship eventually withdrew to the Humber, where she undertook 3 months of repairs.
Post-war, Marlborough joined Iron Duke in the Mediterranean, where she remained until 1926. She was then transferred to the Atlantic Fleet; her tour of duty there lasted until 1929, at which point she was withdrawn from active duty. The ship was sold for scrapping in 1932.